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I Started Taking a Walk Every Morning. Here’s What Happened to My Health

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Since March, I’ve been waking up earlier.

Before that time, I’d typically go to bed at 11 p.m. and naturally wake up between 7:00 and 7:30 a.m.

Then, for some reason, regardless of what time I went to bed, I started spontaneously waking up between 5:30 and 6 a.m. Consequently, I moved my bedtime earlier, too.

I’m not sure why the shift happened; maybe it’s my circadian rhythm changing in middle age.

When I first started waking up early, I didn’t know what to do with myself. I mostly read and took care of admin work before the rest of the family woke up.

But then at the start of May, I decided to take a two-mile walk right after I woke up at the buttcrack of dawn. Why? I don’t know. It was something to do mostly. Also, I knew I needed to walk more. I’ve got a pretty dang sedentary job as a blogger/podcaster. I’m on my butt reading, writing, and answering emails for hours every day.

I’ve had plenty of guests on the podcast who talked about the research on just how bad being sedentary is for your health — even if you make time for regular, strenuous exercise every day like I have for over 15 years. An hour of dedicated exercise each day can’t make up for sitting on your butt for the rest of your waking hours.

So, I figured I’d use my newfound time in the morning to move more and get my steps in.

I had zero expectations or specific health goals when I started the daily walking habit.

But I could soon tell from both personal observation and the fitness trackers I use (the Oura ring and the Apple Watch) that it was creating some positive changes in my health.

Here’s what happened after doing a month of my morning walk routine:

My daily steps increased.My daughter Scout likes to check my Apple Watch stats each night when I tuck her in. >Back in March, she looked at my daily steps and saw that they were consistently in the 4k to 5k range. “Dad, you really don’t move much during the day,” she’d observe. “You’re kind of a lump.

Convicted!

Ever since I’ve started walking every morning, I usually get 12k to 15k steps a day. Much better. The boost hasn’t come from my morning walk alone; that habit has also had the unintended benefit of getting me moving more in general. I’ll intermittently take 10-minute walking breaks during the day just because I like how it feels to walk. I also get the Scout vote of approval each night when she looks at my watch.

Winning!

My resting heart rate dropped.Resting heart rate has been shown to be a good indicator of overall fitness and cardiovascular health. A lower resting heart rate means your heart is working more efficiently. Higher resting heart rates have been associated with cardiovascular disease.

A normal resting heart rate for adults is between 60 and 100. Well-trained athletes have a resting heart rate closer to 40.

Before I started walking in the morning, my resting heart rate was usually between 60 and 55. Not terrible.

But after a month of daily walking, my resting heart rate started hovering around 45 — closer to elite athlete level. And I got there just by leisurely walking for 35 minutes every morning.

My heart rate variability increased.Heart rate variability (HRV) is the variation in time intervals between consecutive heartbeats, reflecting the autonomic nervous system’s regulation of the heart. You actually want a lot of variation in your heart rate. High HRV indicates a healthy balance between the sympathetic (fight or flight) and parasympathetic (rest and digest) systems. Individuals with a high HRV are less stressed and more resilient physically and emotionally. You’re able to perform better physically and mentally when your HRV is high.

Low HRV indicates that your body is under stress due to factors like fatigue, dehydration, overwork, or illness.

Physical exercise, like walking, lowers your HRV by enhancing the parasympathetic (rest and digest) activity of your nervous system. Physical activity also helps your body manage overall stress levels and improves blood flow, two factors that contribute to a lower HRV as well.

Before I started walking every morning, my HRV hovered between 36 ms and 40 ms — not great. Now it’s hovering between 45 and 55 ms. An improvement!

My V02 max improved. VO2 max, or maximal oxygen uptake, is the maximum rate at which your body can consume oxygen during intense exercise. It’s a key indicator of cardiovascular fitness and aerobic endurance. Higher VO2 max values indicate a greater ability of the heart, lungs, and muscles to utilize oxygen, reflecting better overall fitness and endurance levels.

You can improve V02 Max through consistent HIIT or steady-state cardio. The only cardio I’ve been doing this past month is walking every morning.

According to my Apple Watch, at the start of May, my estimated V02 max (emphasis on estimated; I’d need to take an actual V02 max test to get an accurate measurement) was 38.5. Today it’s 42. It’s only a small change, and there’s still a lot of room for improvement, but taking a stroll each morning seems to have helped!

I sleep better at night. While I’m still waking up earlier than I used to, my sleep overallhas improved since starting the morning walk habit.

According to my Oura ring, I fall asleep faster and have more deep sleep and REM sleep. During deep sleep, your body releases hormones to help you grow and recover, and your brain flushes out toxins. REM sleep is when we dream, and as we’ve discussed on the podcast, our brain uses dreams to consolidate memories and make sense of all the stuff we experience during waking time.

I reckon the morning walk has improved my sleep in two ways. First, walking is a great way to build up your sleep pressure. Physical activity helps create adenosine in your brain, which makes you sleepy. The more adenosine you’ve built up during the day, the sleepier you feel at bedtime. When it’s 10 p.m., I’m ready to hit the hay, and as soon as my head hits the pillow, I’m out.

The early morning walks have also likely helped my sleep thanks to the exposure it provides to early morning sunlight.Exposure to sunlight helps regulate our circadian rhythm. Research suggests exposing yourself to sunlight first thing in the morning can get your circadian rhythm in a good groove so that you’re ready to go to sleep when you go to bed and experience better quality sleep when you are sleeping.

I’m in a better mood. We’ve talked about how physical activity is the antidote to both anxiety and depression. It’s all thanks to the endorphins that are released when you move your body.

I’ve noticed an improvement in my mood. I just feel better when I get my morning walks in.

I’ve lost some weight. From January to March, I did a short bulk to go from 185 to 200 pounds. In April, I started cutting calories to get my summer shred on. The goal was to get back down to 187 pounds. Why 187? I feel and look good at that weight. In April, I was able to lower my weight by five pounds by just reducing calories each week. In May, I continued to lower my calories slightly each week, but added in my daily walks. I was able to drop the remaining 10 pounds in just four weeks, and I never felt starved because my calories didn’t get crazy low. Combining calorie restriction with increased energy expenditure from walking turbocharged my weight loss.

ower heart rate, increased HRV, improved V02 max, deeper sleep, better mood, and reduced body weight.

Solvitur ambulando. It is solved by walking. Damn straight.

I can’t recommend taking a daily walk enough. Two miles takes me about 35 minutes. With just 35 minutes a day, I was able to make some pretty significant improvements in my health in just a month. A small change in your daily routine will net you an outsized number of benefits.

If you haven’t started a regular exercise routine because you feel like you don’t have the time or because you think you have to do a really hard, strenuous workout to get any benefit from exercise, try going for a two-mile walk each day.

Don’t have time or aren’t ready for two miles? Then just do a mile. Something is always better than nothing.

Think you’ll be bored? Listen to a podcast (might I suggest AoM’s?). Improve your mind as you gently but significantly improve your body.



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Health

Sunscreen Dispensers Make Skin Cancer Prevention Easier

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By John Masson

Sometimes it’s better not to overcomplicate things.

So when students at the University of Michigan Medical School wondered what prevents young people from using sunscreen more often, they simply asked them.

And what they found?

Young people were well aware of the importance of sunscreen and the cancer risk that comes with repeated sunburns – the problem was, though, that sunscreen just wasn’t handy when it was needed.

To the med students, this seemed like an eminently solvable problem.

Their one study led to two developments: first, a successful JAMA Network journal publication for the med school students who conducted it.

Then, perhaps even more significantly, the creation of a program that now places sunscreen dispensers in places around Washtenaw County where young people are likely to need them the most.

“This all started based on findings from the research project we did, where we polled youth ages 14 to 24 throughout the country on their views toward sunscreen and sunburn,” said Olivia Lamberg, M.D., who graduated from the med school this spring.

“We found the main barrier to sunscreen use was access, not education or awareness. So we decided to meet them where they’re at by putting dispensers in places where they may be needed.”

The plan

Beginning in summer 2022, with a $10,000 grant from the Rogel Cancer Center, Lamberg and her fellow med students partnered with Ann Arbor Parks and Recreation, Michigan Athletics, and dispenser and sunscreen supplier Impact Melanoma to strategically place dispensers in places like pools, golf courses and outdoor athletic fields.

In the first two years, 17 dispensers were deployed across 13 locations in Ann Arbor.

About 10,000 applications of sunscreen from the dispensers were made, and an estimated 50,000 people have seen the dispensers and their sun safety messaging.

Starting this summer, the program is expanding to high schools in Ann Arbor and Ypsilanti.

“Certainly, when teens leave the house they are not first and foremost thinking of skin cancer prevention. Athletes are packing athletic gear, not sunscreen,” said Svati Pazhyanur, a medical student who will oversee the program in the coming year since Lamberg graduated.

“One advantage of this project is building a habit and building awareness. In that way, I think it’s been really beneficial.”

Tammy Chang, M.D., associate professor of family medicine at Michigan Medicine, has been involved with the students’ efforts from the beginning.

“This is such a wonderful example of how students are participating in research that can improve the health of their own communities,” Chang said.

“It turns out, young people actually have a lot of knowledge about the dangers of sun exposure. The problem really was operationalizing that knowledge.”

Chang adds that one of the keys to long term skin health is early and consistent use of sunscreen, and that doing so can pay huge dividends for years to come.

“Young people have this potential to change their behavior in ways that can benefit them for the remainder of their lives,” Chang said.

“The potential to impact health and improve the lives of young people is enormous.”

That realization helped drive the medical students’ participation in the program, which includes educational visits to Ann Arbor Parks and Recreation’s summer camps.

During the visits, medical students taught more than 250 youngsters about sun safety, using a combination of games to bring the lessons home.

“We’d do a lot of different games – relay races, have teams pick through different types of clothing to see which types are best in the sun, or have them dress up a teammate in sun safety clothing,” Lamberg said. “We have beads that change color in UV light, so we made bracelets and necklaces out of those,” said Lamberg, who stated it visually highlights the difference between playing in the shade and playing in the sun.

For Pazhyanur, who now dedicates an estimated three to five hours a week to the project, the efforts are well worth it.

“We’re building a habit and building awareness, and in that way I think it’s been beneficial,” Pazhyanur said.

Because of Pazhyanur’s Indian heritage, the work has extra meaning for her: people of color, although typically less prone to skin cancer, tend to have worse outcomes because darker skin means melanoma is often detected later.

“The prevalence is lower than in people with lighter skin,” Pazhyanur said.

“But skin cancer is often caught later, and there’s a higher melanoma mortality among people of color.”

Chang says the heart of the program – and its greatest strength – is its roots in the community.

“The strongest aspect of this program is that it’s community driven,” Chang said.

“The idea came from young people who live and work in this community, and that’s why it works. Communities know best what is good for them.”

It doesn’t hurt, either, that it’s really pretty simple, she says.

“It’s not a fancy, complicated program,” Chang said.

“But sometimes the most simple programs, focused on what the community really wants, are the most effective.”

Previously Published on michiganmedicine.org with Creative Commons License

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Sea Moss Supplement by Holistic Vybez: A Family-Owned Wellness Revolution

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Established by Naeem and Ashley Akbar, Holistic Vybez is a family-run firm that has grown quickly to become a major force in the holistic health sector. Holistic Vybez, which was founded on vegan principles and was influenced by Dr. Sebi, was started during the pandemic to cater to the growing interest of consumers in wellness and health. This piece examines their path, the difficulties they encountered, and their goals going forward.

Both Dr. Sebi’s disciples Naeem and Ashley Akbar were devoted vegans. They founded Holistic Vybez during the pandemic because of their steadfast commitment to natural health and wellness. They decided to go all in and sell goods meant to improve immunity and general well-being, such as their well-liked sea moss supplement, after realizing that consumer attention was shifting toward health.

Sea Moss Gel Challenges: Perseverance Amidst Adversity

Starting a sea moss gel and health company during the pandemic’s peak meant overcoming several challenges:

  • Pandemic challenges: Products were lost and reshipping costs incurred a loss of almost $7,000.
  • Customer communication: To establish their superior level of customer service, Naeem and Ashley personally contacted each consumer to explain the circumstances.

Seamoss Store: Scaling Up

Holistic Vybez showed tenacity and dedication by expanding from a basement operation to a 5,000-square-foot warehouse in just two years. Their commitment to delivering a high-quality sea moss supplement and upholding stellar client relations drove their quick development.

Health With Intention

  • Emphasis on health benefits: Holistic Vybez places a higher priority on health benefits than flavor. Every newly released sea moss supplement producthas an ever-expanding list of therapeutic benefits.
  • Novel goods: To provide extra value for their customers, every new flavor or product, like their sea moss gel, is carefully chosen for its health advantages.

Career Highlights

  • Rapid growth: In just four years, Holistic Vybez has scaled to an $8,000,000 business.
  • Customer loyalty: Their commitment to quality and customer service has earned them a loyal customer base.

Expanding Sea Moss Gel and the Holistic Vybez Brand

Holistic Vybez aims to become a leading brand in the holistic health industry. The Akbar’s dream of opening physical stores to reach and support more communities, making it easier for customers to buy sea moss online or visit a nearby seamoss store.

The Heart of Holistic Vybez and Sea Moss Supplements

A tribute to the Akbars’ commitment to infusing family values into every facet of their business is Holistic Vybez. Because they are a family-run, black business, they make sure that all of their employees are treated as members of their extended family, which fosters a friendly and cooperative work atmosphere.

Image sourced from the Holistic Vybez website.

Naeem and Ashley Akbar have made it a point to conduct their business in an environmentally responsible manner. They use food from sustainable farms and utilize recyclable packaging materials. Their commitment to environmental preservation is a reflection of their holistic wellness concept, which takes into account both the health of the environment and their clientele.

Holistic Vybez is distinguished not only by its superior sea moss supplements and goods but also by its everlasting dedication to family, health, and customer support. The goal of a healthy world is progressively coming to pass thanks to Naeem and Ashley Akbar’s ongoing innovation and growth.

This content is brought to you by Noan Noah

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Plasma You Sell in East Kansas City Could End up in Medicine an Ocean Away

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By Suzanne King

Michael Mullen donates blood plasma every Tuesday and Thursday. He has for 12 years.

Takeaways
  1. The U.S. is one of a handful of countries that lets people sell plasma.
  2. Plasma donation centers in the United States, including 11 in Kansas City, supply 70% of the world’s plasma.
  3. Drug therapies made from the plasma are life-saving to people with rare, chronic diseases.
  4. But critics worry that the effects of frequent, long-term donation are unknown.

The money it brings in — a little over $100 a week — augments what he makes as a chef. He’s come to rely on it.

“It helps supplement bill paying,” he said recently, smoking a cigarette outside the Biomat USA donation center on East 63rd Street where he’d just spent an hour and a half in the donation chair. “If I didn’t have it, I don’t know. I don’t know what would happen.”

Kelcey Gordon is out of work and said he’d struggle without the money he makes donating twice a week. Standing outside the same for-profit plasma donation center, one of 11 in the Kansas City area, he said he is grateful for the extra cash it represents.

In the $35 billion plasma pharmaceutical industry, Mullen, Gordon and some 3 million other U.S. adults supply the raw material the industry counts on.

The plasma they deposit every week is tested, processed and separated into protein parts that become medicine to treat rare, chronic conditions like immune deficiencies, autoimmune diseases and bleeding disorders.

Their plasma, collected at a storefront that shares a shopping center with a Thriftway and lies just a block east of Cash America Pawn, will end up in medicines sold for hundreds or thousands of dollars a dose. It will likely treat patients on the other side of the world.

Thanks to regulations that make the United States one of the few countries to let companies pay for plasma, and because people here can donate as often as twice a week, the U.S. supplies about 70% of the world’s plasma.

“This is the world basket of plasma,” said Peter Jaworski, a Georgetown University professor who studies the plasma economy.

The industry — with the enthusiastic backing of organizations that advocate for people suffering from the diseases that plasma therapies treat — says the system works. If people weren’t paid to donate, they argue demand could not be met. That would mean thousands of people would die or be unable to live normal lives.

The plasma centers, most of them owned and operated by pharmaceutical companies based overseas, say their business models also inject money into local communities.

Donation centers employ phlebotomists, security guards and screeners. And the payments made to donors — which vary based on how often someone donates and, in some cases, how much a donor weighs — go back into the local economy.

But doctors and public health experts caution that no one really knows what frequent plasma donations over many years could mean for donors’ health.

And they worry that poor people provide a bulk of U.S. donations at plasma centers. Plasma centers tend to set up in disadvantaged neighborhoods and rely on incentive programs designed to make donors give again and again.

Plasma centers push people to give as often as possible, but they don’t disclose the unknown risks of frequently extracting plasma from their blood for many years.

“People perceive it as a better alternative than high-cost loans that lead to debt,” said Emily A. Gallagher, an assistant professor of finance at the University of Colorado. She co-authored a study about the intersection between plasma donors and payday loan customers.

“Without knowing the longer-term health consequences,” she said, “it’s analogous to a loan against your future house with an unknown interest rate.”

Therapies from donated plasma

The blood running through your veins includes red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and plasma. Plasma — a yellow-tinged liquid — accounts for more than half of your blood.

It is 90% water, but also contains proteins vital to living a normal life. When someone has plasma that lacks  — or is short on — certain proteins, they end up with rare and chronic diseases. Medicines made from healthy human plasma treat those diseases by supplementing the lacking plasma.

For someone with primary immune deficiency, a condition in which a person’s immune system doesn’t function properly, it takes 130 donations to cover a year’s worth of treatment. For a person with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, a potentially fatal disease that can lead to organ damage, that number jumps to 900 donations a year. And for someone with hemophilia, a blood clotting disorder, it takes 1,200 donations of plasma to make a year’s worth of medicine.

Scientists have known about blood circulation since 1628, and blood transfusions began almost that long ago. In 1665, a British doctor figured out how to keep a dog alive by transfusing blood from other dogs.

At the beginning of the 20th century, scientists began to figure out that different people had different blood types. And by World War II the value of blood plasma was well understood.

In 1940, researchers developed a process to break plasma down into individual components to treat patients. That’s essentially what happens to plasma donated today.

Wild west of plasma collection

Donated plasma goes through a process known as fractionation, which separates plasma into various protein parts. Once it is tested and cleaned — a process that can take up to a year — those proteins are pooled with other donors’ plasma and made into therapies.

Plasma therapies for patients on the receiving end are considered extremely safe today. Tests designed to find plasma tainted by disease are highly effective. And plasma pharmaceutical makers won’t use plasma until a donor has given at least twice and the donor has passed a health screening. In addition, plasma is treated to kill any lingering virus before it is used in medicine.

But in the 1980s, before it was understood that viruses like HIV could be transmitted through blood, plasma transfusions proved deadly.

In the United States, 63% of hemophiliacs contracted HIV after receiving plasma from infected donors. Others contracted hepatitis B and hepatitis C, diseases that are also transmitted through blood.

After those “wild west days of plasma collection,” Jaworski said, the industry underwent drastic changes. That included pharmaceutical companies taking over independent donation centers. In recent years, those centers have multiplied.

Pharmaceutical companies operate a combined 1,000 collection centers in the United States. That’s compared to 300 in 2005.

The business of taking human plasma and turning it into medicine is worth about $35 billion this year. And that could nearly double by 2032, according to Fortune Business Insights, a market research firm.

Growing demand for plasma donations

Kansas City-area donation centers are all owned directly by the companies that make the plasma-derived drugs.

They include the Biomat on 63rd Street, owned by Grifols S.A., a Spanish company. Other Kansas City donation centers are owned by CSL Ltd., based in Australia, Takeda Pharmaceuticals from Japan and Octapharma Plasma, out of Switzerland.

Experts say the influx of new donation centers in recent years follows growing demand for plasma therapies. That’s because scientists are figuring out that more diseases can benefit from plasma medicines. During the COVID pandemic, plasma transfusions from previously infected donors were tried as a treatment, but its effectiveness isn’t understood because scientific testing was lacking.

Demand for plasma therapies is also up because more people are being diagnosed with diseases that could benefit from them.

For example, improved newborn screenings mean more people know they have primary immune deficiency, diseases that affect an estimated 500,000 people. But according to the Immune Deficiency Foundation, “tens of thousands” of others remain undiagnosed.

Only the United States, Germany, the Czech Republic and a few other countries allow payments for plasma donations. The countries that restrict payments have to rely on imports, primarily from the U.S. There is no synthetic alternative to human plasma.

That’s why Jaworski wants more countries to allow paid plasma.

“There isn’t a single country in the world that collects enough plasma to meet demand unless they compensate donors,” he said. “The most important moral mission for a system of blood and plasma collection is to meet the needs of patients.”

By that standard, he said, the American system is unquestionably succeeding.

“America not only collects enough for its own citizens,” he said, “it also collects enough for the rest of the world.”

Is donating plasma twice a week safe?

Through a process known as plasmapheresis, the plasma collected at for-profit centers is taken out of a donor’s arm as whole blood, pumped into a machine that separates out plasma and returns red blood cells and other components of blood to the donor.

That process, known as source plasma collection, is regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and also overseen by the countries that import the plasma. Donors spend about 90 minutes in the donation chair.

Nonprofit blood centers like the Community Blood Center of Greater Kansas City collect plasma through whole blood donations. Plasma is separated out once blood has been donated. But that process yields much less plasma.

Nonprofit blood banks don’t pay for donations. For one thing, hospitals won’t accept blood from a donor who has been compensated. And the World Health Organization advises against paying for donations. It’s considered risky because donors who give blood because they need money could be more likely to misrepresent their health history — essentially hiding the likelihood that they’re carrying blood-borne infections.

Because plasma used in pharmaceuticals is so thoroughly processed, the risk posed by paid donations is lower. Jaworski said it’s proved to be extraordinarily safe for 30 years. He argues that objections to paid plasma donations are unrealistic when so many people rely on plasma therapies.

He compared paying people for their plasma to hiring firefighters rather than relying on volunteers. The payment doesn’t diminish the good act, he said.

“At some point, you get too many fires and you have to pay people to put out the fires,” he said. “We hit that tipping point (for plasma) more than 20 years ago.”

People who rely on the therapies created from paid-for plasma are actively campaigning to be sure paid donations continue.

The Immune Deficiency Foundation has a program meant to recruit more paid donors. “Your work will encourage donors to continue donating and, in turn, encourage their friends and family to donate plasma as well,” the organization’s web page says.

But while plasma-derived therapies are critical for the patients relying on them to live a normal life, some doctors worry about what plasma donation could do to donors.

Plasma collection centers advise donors to drink lots of water, get sleep and have a healthy meal before donating. In the near term, donors are told to be prepared for certain temporary side effects like dehydration, dizziness and fatigue.

On its webpage, CSL Plasma also warns about the possibility that donating frequently for a long period of time can deplete immunoglobulin levels, which can lower a person’s ability to fight off infections.

What is the downside to donating plasma?

Dr. Morey A. Blinder, a hematologist at Washington University, said that’s definitely something frequent plasma donors should worry about. Long-term studies, looking at people who donate plasma twice a week, year after year, simply haven’t been done, he said.

“You’re depleting a person’s proteins in their bloodstream,” he said. “And it’s hard to know what the effect of that is.”

Proteins regenerate, he said, so in the short term, people can keep up. But it’s unclear what happens over time.

And while the plasma collection centers monitor donors’ health, their incentive isn’t to limit donations. It’s to collect as much plasma as possible.

“There are financial incentives to these donors to stay on schedule and keep donating,” Blinder said.

Many doctors would feel more comfortable, he said, if that pressure were reduced. Blinder also would like to see more frequent checks of donors’ blood levels, and a weekly, rather than twice weekly, donation limit.

“People in this field would say that would be an advantage,” he said.

Blinder also questions whether the pharmaceutical companies are paying donors fairly. Donors take home around $50 per donation, but the medicine it’s eventually turned into can cost $200 a gram, perhaps $16,000 per treatment dose, depending on the illness.

“We don’t have a good sense of the margins they earn on the plasma,” said Gallagher, the University of Colorado professor.

Right or wrong, the paid plasma business has become a reasonably big thread in the country’s social safety net. Gallagher found that people tend to donate plasma so they can get extra money and avoid taking out high-interest loans to make ends meet. Donors range from college students to single parents to low-wage earners who just need extra cash.

BioLife Plasma Services is promising new donors “up to $800.” And CSL Plasma advertises new donors “over $700 your first month.”

Whether or not donors are getting a fair payment, selling plasma is tempting a growing number of Americans. And, like Mullen and Gordon, they’re relying on the extra cash.

That’s why most mornings, before CSL Plasma’s donation center at 37th and Broadway opens for business at 6 a.m., a line of ready donors is already waiting outside.

This article first appeared on Beacon: Kansas City and is republished here under a Creative Commons license.

This story was originally published by The Kansas City Beacon, an online news outlet focused on local, in-depth journalism in the public interest.

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